Akasha

Projects

Software

Hardware

Research

Community

The Foundation

About

Careers

Hub Barcelona

Blog

Contact us

Resources

Glossary

Style Guide

Get in touch, we are friendly people

CC BY-SA 4.0 AKASHA Foundation

AKASHA’s Glossary

Efficient communication resorts to some use of specialist words and phrases. Aspiring to effective communication too, we explain those words and phrases right here so everyone can join the party.

A

AKASHA Key
link

A smart card offering a highly secure cryptocurrency hardwallet.

AKASHA dapp
link

A next-generation social media network powered by the Ethereum world computer and embedded into the Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS).

Alice
link

The cryptography community started to use these names (A, B and C) in the 1970s to explain their designs. Now the tech community uses the names more widely for greater clarity than say user1, user2 and user3.

Anti-rivalous
link

The opposite of a rivalrous good. When more people share an anti- rivalrous good, each person gets the more utility / benefit.

Assemblage
link

The closest translation to the French word ' agencement ' means putting together, arranging. It’s important to consider the act rather than any static result.

Authentication
link

Confirming the truth of some piece of data or information claimed to be true. In the context of identity , authentication is the process of actually confirming that the person claiming to be Alice is indeed Alice .

artificial intelligence
link

Intelligence exhibited by machines, typically developed for specific goals such as reasoning, knowledge building, planning, learning, and understanding spoken and written language.

B

Biometric
link

Metrics related to human characteristics. Biometric authentication may allow Alice to access her device with her fingerprint for example. Biometrics may also help identify individuals under surveillance , for example with facial recognition.

Bitcoin
link

Bitcoin is the world's first cryptocurrency . It is also the name of the underlying system, the world's first application of blockchain technology.

Blockchain
link

An incorruptible, distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of records, called blocks. Bitcoin was the first application of a blockchain .

C

Centralization
link

A system with one (or very few) central components through which information flows with a corresponding concentration of control.

Co-operate
link

Working together based on shared values and compatible goals.

Coherence
link

A consistency; more of a unified whole. Often then regarded as being in tension with decentralization and system responsiveness, although other system parameters can ease the trade-off.

Collaborate
link

Working together based on shared values and a common goal.

Collective intelligence
link

A shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration , collective efforts, and competition of many individuals.

Collective mind
link

When individuals demonstrate thought processes and behaviours that are only manifest in social situations, and the emergence of mental states at that group level that aren’t reducible to the individual states of individuals.

Communication
link

Conveying meanings from one entity to another in mutually understood ways.

Consensus
link

A group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole. It represents a broadly acceptable resolution.

Content addressing
link

A way to store information so it can be retrieved based on its content (what it is) rather than, as is most common today, its location (where it is).

Conversation protocol
link

A necessary and sufficient set of rules for the technological facilitation of conversation towards the more frequent creation of insights.

Conversation theory
link

A cybernetic and dialectic framework developed by Gordon Pask that offers a scientific theory to explain how interactions lead to "construction of knowledge " or "knowing".

Coveillance
link

Neither surveillance (watching 'from above') or sousveillance (watching 'from below'), but watching side-to-side. Generates an awareness of the disempowering nature of surveillance .

Cryptocurrency
link

A digital form of money that relies on cryptography . Most everyday money is fiat money, which means it's established by government regulation or law, whereas a cryptocurrency does not depend on either.

Cryptography
link

The construction and analysis of methods that prevent anyone other than the intended recipient(s) from reading private messages.

Cryptonetwork
link

A form of networking computers, documents and people based on cryptographic techniques. Evolved from Bitcoin .

D

D.R.Y.
link

D.R.Y. ( Don't Repeat Yourself ) is a principle aimed at reducing repetition to avoid redundancy. The D.R.Y. principle is stated as "Every piece of knowledge must have a single, unambiguous, authoritative representation within a system”.

DAO (distributed autonomous organization)
link

An organization represented by rules encoded as a computer program that is transparent, controlled by stakeholders and not influenced by a central government.

Dapp (decentralized application)
link

An application with code that runs on a decentralized network. They may be entirely anonymous or require some reputational assessment of the nodes running the code.

Data
link

Individual, separate, objective facts representing the properties of objects and events. Computers work with data , but humans do not so readily.

Data protection
link

The relationship between the collection and dissemination of data , technology, the public expectation of privacy , and the legal and political issues surrounding them.

Data subject
link

The identified or identifiable natural person to whom personal data relates.

Decentralization
link

A system that doesn't have central components through which information flows, thereby avoiding a concentration of control. Extreme decentralization is sometimes referred to as fully distributed .

Design for conversations
link

The specific design of interactive systems to enable more productive, insightful conversations.

Distributed
link

Decentralization is a system that doesn't have central components through which information flows, thereby avoiding a concentration of control. Extreme decentralization is sometimes referred to as fully distributed .

Distributed ledger
link

A set of data located and maintained in many different places in such a manner that it's consistent without requiring a central administrator or storage place. Blockchain is a form of distributed ledger .

E

Economy of insight
link

As media based on Conversation Protocol emerges, we progress from the information age to the conversation age and an economy based on conversational insights.

Entailment mesh
link

A way to capture and share agreement of an understanding derived through conversation.

F

Federated
link

A grouping of computing or network providers agreeing upon standards of operation collectively. This may allow different systems to work differently but so they can still work together.

Free software
link

Free (Libre) Software – often written as FOSS or FLOSS – is freely licensed to the person who needs to change it and those changes have to be published freely too.

H

Hard ID
link

In the gift of government or similar authority. Corresponds to an identified subject rather than an identifying subject.

Holon
link

A holon is simultaneously a whole and a part. It's an evolving, self-organizing system (or phenomenon) composed of other holons. Their structures sit on the boundary of chaos and order.

I

Identity
link

Philosophically, identity asks "What makes it true that you are you?" We deal here with digital identity information on a person, organization, application, device or other 'thing', that describes it uniquely.

Information
link

Processed data , data made useful, data made relevant. Computers work with data . Humans work more easily with information .

Insight
link

The result of productive conversation leading to solutions to problems. A necessary precursor to creating new economic potential.

Internet
link

The global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocols to link devices. The Web runs 'on top of' the Internet .

Interpersonal data
link

Whereas personal data is a legal definition in the regulation of ' data subject' privacy , interpersonal data is a more human and therefore more social conception, 'living' between those concerned, privacy -preserving yet also socially meaningful.

K

KISS
link

Keep it simple, stupid ( KISS ) is a design principle which states that designs and/or systems should be as simple as possible. Wherever possible, complexity should be avoided in a system—as simplicity guarantees the greatest levels of user acceptance and interaction.

Knowledge
link

We build knowledge from data and information by identifying and interpreting patterns. Knowledge enables better understanding.

M

Machine learning
link

A field of artificial intelligence ( AI ) that uses statistical techniques to give computer systems the ability to "learn" (e.g. progressively improve performance)

Message
link

Passed between software for its own purposes, or for the purposes of one human conveying something to another.

Metcalfe’s Law
link

States the effect of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system.

Moore’s Law
link

The observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

N

non-rivalrous
link

Something is non- rivalrous when the cost of providing it to a marginal (additional) individual is zero for any level of production.

O

Open
link

An emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and information , and also collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority.

Open source
link

Open source software (OSS) means that the source code (the code humans write before it's converted into code a computing device runs) is freely licensed to those who need to change it.

Open systems
link

Encompasses processes that exchange material, energy, people, capital and information with the system's environment.

P

Peer to peer
link

A distributed architecture that regards all the things (peers) involved to have equal status and equal power of participation in the network. Such design may entail the peers sharing out tasks between themselves.

Personal agency
link

Agency refers not to the intentions people have in doing things but to their capability of doing those things in the first place.

Personal data
link

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person – one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, by reference to a name, an identification number, location data , or other identifier, or to factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that person. [GDPR]

Privacy
link

Takes different forms in different contexts. E.g. Bob shouldn't acquire information about Alice , Bob shouldn't interfere with Alice 's actions, Bob shouldn't intrude into Alice 's space, Bob should tolerate Alice 's beliefs, and Bob shouldn't appropriate, use, or exchange Alice 's property.

R

Regenerative
link

Processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature.

Rivalrous
link

Something is rivalrous when its consumption by one person prevents simultaneous consumption by others or reduces the utility / benefit to others.

S

Self-sovereign identity
link

Allows a person or other entity to identify itself, maintaining complete autonomy over the means of identifying, and the basis for that identifying e.g. based on who you know, or one's contextual behaviour.

Self-sovereign technology
link

Any technology designed to serve the needs of one person / entity identifying with self-sovereign identity .

Sociocracy
link

(Dynamic Governance in N. America.) A social ideal that values equality and the rights of people to decide the conditions under which they live and work, and a method of organizing collaborative and productive organizations.

Soft ID
link

Allows the identifying subject the psychological and sociological freedom to establish, maintain, and dispose of multiple (digital) identities.

Sousveillance
link

Purposeful monitoring (recording and transmission) by an entity not in a position of authority with respect to the intended subject. Typified by so-called 'body cams'.

Surveillance
link

The monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.

Surveillance capitalism
link

A term used and popularized by Shoshana Zuboff to describe a new type of capitalism that profits from data acquired through surveillance .

Sustainable
link

The property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. By contrast, the way people use the planet today is unsustainable.

T

Transdisciplinary
link

Crossing many disciplinary boundaries to develop a holistic approach.

Trust
link

The willingness to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the person doing the trusting, regardless of whether the person can monitor or control that other party.

V

Veillance
link

Purposeful watching. The word is most often encountered as part of the longer words surveillance and sousveillance .

W

Wallet
link

Stores the public and private keys which can be used to receive or spend a cryptocurrency . Come in a variety of forms.

Wicked problem
link

Difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements. "Super wicked" when time is running out, there's no central authority, and policies discount the future irrationally.

World wide web
link

The Web runs 'on top of' the Internet . It allows documents and other web resources to be identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, sometimes known as web addresses) such that any document can link to another with hyperlinks.